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Cosmologists at odds over mysterious anomalies in data from early Universe

Planck satellite’s picture of cosmic microwave background needs correction, some researchers argue.

PDF Cosmologists at odds over mysterious anomalies in data from early Universe _ Nature News & Comment

Simulations back up theory that Universe is a hologram

A ten-dimensional theory of gravity makes the same predictions as standard quantum physics in fewer dimensions.

PDF Simulations back up theory that Universe is a hologram _ Nature News & Comment

Why The Full Moon is Better in Winter

Minute Physics

The dark side of the universe

Astrophysicist Kris Sigurdson explains dark energy, one of the great mysteries of the universe
Continue reading through The University of British Columbia PDF The dark side of the universe_UBC

How to sequence the human genome

Coldest Place On Earth – NASA Finds It

How Earth Produces Its Coldest Temperatures

To Settle Infinity Dispute, a New Law of Logic

As incomprehensible as it may seem, infinity comes in many measures. A new axiom is needed to make sense of its multifaceted nature. [ continue reading through Quanta Magazine ] PDF To Settle Infinity Question, a New Law of Mathematics | Simons Foundation

Study shows how water dissolves stone, molecule by molecule

The dissolution process of a crystalline structure in water is shown: two bonded SiO4 -- molecules dissolve (top left), a quartz crystal (top right) and the computer-simulated surface of a dissolving crystalline structure (below). CREDIT: MARUM & Rice University

The dissolution process of a crystalline structure in water is shown: two bonded SiO4 — molecules dissolve (top left), a quartz crystal (top right) and the computer-simulated surface of a dissolving crystalline structure (below). CREDIT: MARUM & Rice University

Scientists from Rice University and the University of Bremen’s Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM) in Germany have combined cutting-edge experimental techniques and computer simulations to find a new way of predicting how water dissolves crystalline structures like those found in natural stone and cement.

In a new study featured on the cover of the Nov. 28 issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry C, the team found their method was more efficient at predicting the dissolution rates of crystalline structures in water than previous methods. The research could have wide-ranging impacts in diverse areas, including water quality and planning, environmental sustainability, corrosion resistance and cement construction [ continue reading through RICE University ] PDF Study shows how water dissolves stone, molecule by molecule_RICE University

Seeing beyond the visual cortex — Science Nation

(video)

Seeing beyond the visual cortex

It’s a chilling thought–losing the sense of sight due tp severe injury or damage to the brain’s visual cortex. But, is it possible to train a damaged or injured brain to “see” again? Yes, according to Tony Ro, a neuroscientist at the City College of New York, who is artificially recreating a condition called “blindsight” in his lab. “Blindsight is a condition that some patients experience after having damage to the primary visual cortex in the back of their brains. What happens in these patients is they go cortically blind, yet they can still discriminate visual information, albeit without any awareness,” Ro explains. Ro says blindsight holds tantalizing clues to the architecture of the brain. With support from NSF, he is developing a clearer picture of how other parts of the brain, besides the visual cortex, respond to visual stimuli. He says understanding and mapping those alternative pathways might be the key to new rehabilitative therapies.Credit: National Science Foundation

Watch video through NSF

Biochemist — Profiles of Scientists and Engineers

(video)

Biochemist

What’s it really like to be an engineer or a scientist? What does an biochemist do all day? Roselle Rojas shows us some of the latest biochemistry projects taking place at Gatorade’s Sport Science Institute and what her typical day is like inside and outside the lab.Credit: National Science Foundation

Watch video through NSF

The Seven Biggest Questions in Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology

The cosmic frontier. This is the name physicists give the ambitious questions they are trying to answer through observations of outer space. These questions aren’t only in the interest of astronomy; in fact, they’re promising paths to understanding the fundamental physics of our world.

To celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), SLAC recently hosted many of the top scientists in the field to discuss the most important mysteries to confront in the coming decade.

Continue reading through SLAC

Baryonic acoustic oscillations

Scientists have found a way to study sound waves from the early universe to learn more about its history and contents.

December 02, 2013

Baryonic acoustic oscillations are sound waves from the early universe. Scientists have found a way to study these sound waves to learn more about the universe’s history and contents. Shortly after the big bang, when the universe was hot and dense, regions with greater concentrations of light and matter had higher pressure than others. Acoustic waves—governed by the same laws of physics that describe how sound travels to our ears—rippled outward from those high-pressure regions.

These waves carried ordinary (or “baryonic”) matter with them until the universe cooled enough for light to be able to travel freely. Theoretical calculations predicted that a faint imprint of their pattern should remain in the distribution of all the matter we see in the universe today.

In recent years, researchers have identified the distinctive pattern of these sound waves in maps of distant galaxies. The waves have a very well-understood size, about 500 million light years across. Looking at ever more distant galaxies and peering back in time, scientists can measure the angle of these waves on the sky. Simple geometry then determines how the universe itself has grown.

This method has provided important tests of the nature of dark energy, which is the dominant component of the universe today yet remains poorly understood. Scientists are currently planning new experiments that will measure the universe’s growth with unprecedented accuracy by exploiting these sound waves from the dawn of time.

Read through Symmetry Magazine

The chemical reaction that feeds the world

How do we grow crops quickly enough to feed the Earth’s billions? It’s called the Haber process, which turns the nitrogen in the air into ammonia, easily converted in soil to the nitrate plants need to survive. Though it has increased food supply worldwide, the Haber process has also taken an unforeseen toll on the environment. Daniel D. Dulek delves into the chemistry and consequences.

Lesson by Daniel D. Dulek, animation by Uphill Downhill.

TED Ed full lesson

How Things Work: Lasers

The death star superlaser embodies our fascination with lasers. But how do they work? (Source: Death Star PR) The laser is, without a doubt, one of the most ubiquitous, archetypal technologies of modern times. And it is one of the most direct applications of quantum mechanics.  But how do lasers work?

The death star superlaser embodies our fascination with lasers. But how do they work? (Source: Death Star PR)
The laser is, without a doubt, one of the most ubiquitous, archetypal technologies of modern times. And it is one of the most direct applications of quantum mechanics. But how do lasers work?

It All Starts In The Atom … [ continue reading ]

PDF How Things Work: Lasers | The Physics Mill

The five major world religions

It’s perfectly human to grapple with questions, like ‘Where do we come from?’ and ‘How do I live a life of meaning?’ These existential questions are central to the five major world religions — and that’s not all that connects these faiths. John Bellaimey explains the intertwined histories and cultures of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam.

Lesson by John Bellaimey, animation by TED-Ed.

TED Ed Full Lesson

All of the energy in the universe is…

The energy in the universe never increases or decreases — but it does move around a lot. Energy can be potential (like a stretched-out rubber band waiting to snap) or kinetic (like the molecules that vibrate within any substance). And though we can’t exactly see it, every time we cook dinner or shiver on a cold night, we know it’s there. George Zaidan and Charles Morton get excited about energy.

Lesson by George Zaidan and Charles Morton, animation by Pew36 Animation Studios.

TED Ed Full Lesson

The operating system of life

Humans, octopi and pine trees alike are all made up of cells, tiny but sophisticated systems that keep life going. Cells are almost like tiny factories run by robots, with the nucleus, DNA, proteins, lipids, and vitamins and minerals all playing critical roles. George Zaidan and Charles Morton lay out the blueprint of a cell and explain how biochemistry binds all life together.

Lesson by George Zaidan and Charles Morton, animation by Pew36 Animation Studios.

TED Ed Full Lesson

Solving chromosomes’ structure

Scientists first discovered chromosomes in the late 1800s, after the light microscope was invented. Using these microscopes, biologist Walter Flemming observed many tightly wound, elongated structures in cell nuclei. Later, it was found that chromosomes are made from DNA, the cell’s genetic material. 

Since then, scientists have proposed many possible ways that DNA molecules might fold into 3-D condensed chromosomes. Now, researchers at MIT and the University of Massachusetts Medical School have obtained novel data on the 3-D organization of condensed human chromosomes and 
built the first comprehensive model of such chromosomes.

In this model, DNA forms loops that emanate from a flexible scaffold; the loops are tightly compressed along the scaffold. “This is a very efficient way of packing DNA material,” says Leonid Mirny, an associate professor of health sciences and technology and physics at MIT and a senior author of a paper describing the findings in the Nov. 7 online edition of Science.

Computer simulations courtesy of Imakaev I.M., Fudenberg G., Naumova N., Dekker J., and Mirny L.

MIT News Office

Explained: Quantum Computing

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Scott Aaronson explains quantum computing.

MIT News Office

Explained: Photovoltaics

Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering Jeff Grossman explains photovoltaics/solar cells.

MIT News Office

Explained: Optogenetics

Associate Professor of Biological Engineering and Brain and Cognitive Sciences Ed Boyden explains optogenetics and how it is used in neurological research.

MIT News Office

Giant Dinosaurs Stood Tall On Squishy Joints

Image credit: Jim Linwood via Flickr Rights information: http://bit.ly/cGotEb

Image credit: Jim Linwood via Flickr
Rights information: http://bit.ly/cGotEb

Joint differences enabled gigantism in dinosaurs

Oct 24 2013 | By: Jyoti Madhusoodanan | Original online publication Inside Science | PDF Giant Dinosaurs Stood Tall On Squishy Joints
In a cinematic showdown from the sixties, King Kong knocks Godzilla out in an underwater battle. But in reality, giant reptiles still trump terrestrial mammals on size.
Large, plant-eating dinosaurs, including one group known as sauropods, were much more common than giant land-based mammals, which were also herbivores. The largest sauropods frequently weighed more than 30 tons and included massive species such as Diplodocus and Apatosaurus. One of the largest known land mammals, an extinct rhino-like herbivore, only grew to approximately one-third that size. A new study now suggests that one reason for this disparity may lie between their bones ( continue reading )


THE OTHER MARATHON: THE DECISIVE VICTORY OF ATHENS AGAINST THE DORIANS (1000 BC)

23/09/2013 | periklisdeligiannis.wordpress.com


caltech

The Feynman Lectures on Physics

Feynman • Leighton • Sands

 

Caltech and The Feynman Lectures Website are pleased to present this online edition of The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Now, anyone with internet access and a web browser can enjoy reading a high-quality up-to-date copy of Feynman’s legendary lectures. This edition has been designed for ease of reading on devices of any size or shape; text, figures and equations can all be zoomed without degradation [ ... click on the logo for more ... ] 

S46_16


Birth of the Stormers of Rome: Gothic ethnogenesis and migrations

12/09/2013 | Author :  Periklis  Deligiannis | Original online publication : periklisdeligiannis.wordpress.com | pdf : BIRTH OF THE STORMERS OF ROME_ GOTHIC ETHNOGENESIS AND MIGRATIONS _ periklisdeligiannis Περικλής Δεληγιάννης


What Are Brown Dwarfs?

aboutndt

NDT Resource Center. This site was designed to be a comprehensive source of information and materials for NDT and NDE technical education. 

SUBATOMIC PARTICLES

NDT Education Resources

Physics – Particle Classification

Particle Classification ( pdf )

Nobelprize( photo links to all educational productions )

Structure of Matter

What are atoms made of?
What is keeping a nucleus intact?
What happens if you try to separate two quarks?
Are quarks fundamental?
Read the illustrated and animated story about the interior of matter to find out!

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Educator.com – Subscribe to a world of knowledge!

 

Astrobio

TheStanfordAstroBioCourse

darwin_intro

Darwin’s legacy at Stanford

( click on image )

About honeyguides | animal facts.net

About bee eaters  I Dream Africa

Gravity and the human body – Jay Buckey

Lawrence Krauss: Quantum Computing Explained

The Higgs boson: What it is and why it matters

The Spartan ‘Agoge’

The Work Is Only Beginning on Understanding the Human Genome

Unification of forces

Journey from the center of the Earth

Around the US in 17 labs

Mars, the Red Planet, at photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1999. NASA

Mars, the Red Planet, at photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1999.
NASA

Why Is Mars Red?

By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.,
Read the original post at About.com Guide

Question: Why Is Mars Red?

When you look up in the sky, you can recognize Mars by its red color. Yet, when you see photos of Mars taken on Mars, many colors are present. What makes Mars the Red Planet and why doesn’t it always look red close-up? Here’s the answer.
Answer: The short answer for why Mars appears red, or at least red-orange, is because the Martian surface contains a large amount of rustor iron oxide. The iron oxide forms a rust dust that floats in the atmosphere and sits as a dusty coating across much of the landscape.

Why Mars Has Other Colors Up Close

The dust in the atmosphere causes Mars to appear very rusty from space. When viewed from the surface, other colors are apparent, in part because landers and other instruments don’t have to peer through the whole atmosphere to see them, and partly because rust exists in colors other than red, plus there are other minerals on the planet. While red is a common rust color, some iron oxides are brown, black, yellow and even green! So, if you see green on Mars, it doesn’t mean there are plants growing on the planet. Rather, some of the Martian rocks are green, just like some rocks are green on Earth.

Where Does the Rust Come From?

So, you may be wondering where all this rust comes from, since Mars has more iron oxide in its atmosphere than any other planet. Scientists are not completely sure, but many believe the iron was pushed up from the volcanoes that used to erupt. Solar radiation caused atmospheric water vapor to react with the iron to form iron oxides or rust. Iron oxides also may have come from iron-based meteorites, which can react with oxygen under the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation to form iron oxides.

More About Mars

Illustration: Sandbox Studio, Chicago

Illustration: Sandbox Studio, Chicago

Force carriers

Particles communicate with one another through force carriers.

Kelly Izlar | Symmetry magazine

Force carriers are particles that act like messages exchanged between other particles. Scientists have discovered force carriers for three of the four known forces: electromagnetism, the strong force and the weak force.
They are still searching for experimental evidence of the force carrier for the fourth force, gravity.
Particles communicate with one another in different languages, as defined by the kind of force carriers they exchange.
Two particles can communicate with one another only if they are exchanging force carriers that convey a language they both understand. For example, a charged particle like an electron responds to force carriers for the electromagnetic force, but a neutral particle like a neutrino does not. Sometimes two particles must be very close together to communicate via force carriers.
They can “whisper” a message that would be too soft to extend over a long distance. Electrons and neutrinos can exchange W bosons, which are force carriers for the weak force, only when they are close to one another.
A force carrier can convey different messages.
Protons and electrons, which have opposite charges, are attracted to one another through the electromagnetic force.
The particles that carry that force, called photons, act like love notes.
They draw the protons and electrons together.
When two electrons, which both have a negative charge, communicate through electromagnetism, the photons act more like hate mail.
They push the electrons apart.

explain it in 60 seconds

explore Archive

Symmetry Magazine

 

How Does Hydrogen Metallize?

Carnegie Institution for Science

 

NATURE | NEWS

Mystery of Earth’s radiation belts solved

Van Allen belts accelerate their own particles rather than just trapping them.

Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2013.13452

Train wreck at Montparnasse, Paris, France in 1895. Image: Wikimedia Commons

Train wreck at Montparnasse, Paris, France in 1895.
Image: Wikimedia Commons

The Physics of Disaster: An Exploration of Train Derailments [Excerpt]

Understanding the science behind trains can help identify the causes of accidents—and lead us to safer railways

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN | By George Bibel

 

 Fixed-target vs. collider Particle collisions can be achieved in two different modes: fixed-target and collider. As depicted here, shooting a beam into a non-moving target is much easier than shooting two moving beams at each other, as is done in the collider mode. The precision of LHC collider-type collisions is equivalent to that of shooting one sewing needle from Fermilab and another from Winfield (six miles away) and having them collide in the middle. The very large improvement in collision energy is the reason we choose this difficult option. Scientists have known how to accelerate charged particles for over a century. Take a battery, two pieces of metal and some wire, and voila, you have a simple accelerator [...]

Fixed-target vs. collider

Particle collisions can be achieved in two different modes: fixed-target and collider. As depicted here, shooting a beam into a non-moving target is much easier than shooting two moving beams at each other, as is done in the collider mode. The precision of LHC collider-type collisions is equivalent to that of shooting one sewing needle from Fermilab and another from Winfield (six miles away) and having them collide in the middle. The very large improvement in collision energy is the reason we choose this difficult option. Fermilab – Scientists have known how to accelerate charged particles for over a century. Take a battery, two pieces of metal and some wire, and voila, you have a simple accelerator [...]

Proteins Park Free in this Helix Posted on August 1, 2013 by Dr. Francis Collins Caption: Protein-making factories in cells resemble a helical parking garage. Credit: Cell, Terasaki et al. I simply couldn’t resist sharing this image with you, even though the NIH didn’t fund the research. What you see in this picture is a structure called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)—a protein-producing factory that is present in every single cell in your body. The little nubs on the surface of this membranous structure are ribosomes—they produce the proteins that are then modified in the ER [...]

Proteins Park Free in this Helix

Posted on August 1, 2013 by Dr. Francis Collins
Caption: Protein-making factories in cells resemble a helical parking garage.
Credit: Cell, Terasaki et al.
I simply couldn’t resist sharing this image with you, even though the NIH didn’t fund the research. What you see in this picture is a structure called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)—a protein-producing factory that is present in every single cell in your body. The little nubs on the surface of this membranous structure are ribosomes—they produce the proteins that are then modified in the ER [...]

How Did Earth's Primitive Chemistry Get Kick Started? NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Caltech This image from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean shows a collection of limestone towers known as the "Lost City." Alkaline hydrothermal vents of this type are suggested to be the birthplace of the first living organisms on the ancient Earth. Scientists are interested in understanding early life on Earth because if we ever hope to find life on other worlds - especially icy worlds with subsurface oceans such as Jupiter's moon Europa and Saturn's Enceladus - we need to know what chemical signatures to look for. Image courtesy D. Kelley and M. Elend/University of Washington How did life on Earth get started? Three new papers co-authored by Mike Russell, a research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., strengthen the case that Earth's first life began at alkaline hydrothermal vents at the bottom of oceans. Scientists are interested in understanding early life on Earth because if we ever hope to find life on other worlds -- especially icy worlds with subsurface oceans such as Jupiter's moon Europa and Saturn's Enceladus -- we need to know what chemical signatures to look for [...]

How Did Earth’s Primitive Chemistry Get Kick Started?

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Caltech
This image from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean shows a collection of limestone towers known as the “Lost City.” Alkaline hydrothermal vents of this type are suggested to be the birthplace of the first living organisms on the ancient Earth. Scientists are interested in understanding early life on Earth because if we ever hope to find life on other worlds – especially icy worlds with subsurface oceans such as Jupiter’s moon Europa and Saturn’s Enceladus – we need to know what chemical signatures to look for. Image courtesy D. Kelley and M. Elend/University of Washington
How did life on Earth get started? Three new papers co-authored by Mike Russell, a research scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., strengthen the case that Earth’s first life began at alkaline hydrothermal vents at the bottom of oceans. Scientists are interested in understanding early life on Earth because if we ever hope to find life on other worlds — especially icy worlds with subsurface oceans such as Jupiter’s moon Europa and Saturn’s Enceladus — we need to know what chemical signatures to look for [...]

Ανιχνευτές

Δῆλος: τοῦ Ἑκηβόλου γενέτειρα (1ον μέρος)

Ανιχνευτές

Δῆλος: τοῦ Ἑκηβόλου γενέτειρα (2ον μέρος)

Scientific American ( video )

How Do We Measure the Distance to Stars?

MATH: DOES IT EXPLAIN EXISTENCE, or is it really just a tool of the brain? This isn't a curiosity; it's a deep and powerful question. According to many astrophysics, math is at the heart of understanding our universe — and may even one day be the key to explaining our existence. But now neuroscientists are finding evidence that math may actually be a concept developed by the brain — a way for us to make sense of what we can. So which is the truth? Or is there a middle ground? On August 7, 2013, three leading scientists - two neuroscientists and one astrophysicist -– answered your questions about this great debate. Watch this special Google Hangout with neuroscientists Brian Butterworth (University College London) and Rafael Núñez (Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind at the University of California San Diego), and astrophysicist Max Tegmark (Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research at MIT in Cambridge) [ ... ]  ( click on image for more )

MATH: DOES IT EXPLAIN EXISTENCE, or is it really just a tool of the brain? This isn’t a curiosity; it’s a deep and powerful question. According to many astrophysics, math is at the heart of understanding our universe — and may even one day be the key to explaining our existence. But now neuroscientists are finding evidence that math may actually be a concept developed by the brain — a way for us to make sense of what we can. So which is the truth? Or is there a middle ground?
On August 7, 2013, three leading scientists – two neuroscientists and one astrophysicist -– answered your questions about this great debate. Watch this special Google Hangout with neuroscientists Brian Butterworth (University College London) and Rafael Núñez (Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind at the University of California San Diego), and astrophysicist Max Tegmark (Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research at MIT in Cambridge) [ ... ] ( click on image for more )

 

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